Zinsen und ihre historischen Grundlagen

Eine Studie zur Mentalität der "kleinen Leute" in der Gründerzeit. Caricature of Spitzeder opening one of her soup kitchens, from the Münchner Neueste Nachrichten Spitzeder cultivated an image of a resolute, pious woman concerned for the public welfare. Zinsen und ihre historischen Grundlagen. Wanting to follow in her parents' footsteps and against her mother's wishes, Spitzeder studied with Munich actresses Konstanze Dahn and Charlotte von Hagn. In total, she opened and operated twelve such soup kitchens. She lived in Bad Wildbad for ten months where she started writing music for the pianino. In her memoirs, she claims that the Duke of Coburg and the Duke of Württemberg both praised her talent. For health reasons, Spitzeder was allowed to stay in the prison in Baader Street, Munich, where she wrote her memoir. Out of a large number of applicants, she chose a French woman who however apparently did not understand the code and thus left her house after only a few weeks. According to some sources, hers was the first known Ponzi scheme. Outwardly, she maintained the persona of a pious Christian woman who helped the poor, which aided the success of her business. Spitzeder never married, and she rejected numerous marriage proposals, including ones from men of the aristocracy. Positive coverage in the Landesboten led to a large number of customers traveling to Munich to invest with the Dachauer Bank. During one of her engagements, she met Emilie Stier, stage name Branizka, a fellow actress with whom she soon began a romantic relationship.Despite multiple engagements over a period of many years, she failed to achieve lasting success on the stage. Spitzeder's banking services quickly became the talk of the town in Munich's poorer communities thanks to favorable word-of-mouth advertising and soon, more people gave her their savings. One of her employees was Rosa Ehinger, whose beauty and charm Spitzeder used to attract young men to the bank.Spitzeder's business practices and accounting were unconventional and chaotic. Because her customers were mostly workers from the northern outskirts of Munich, especially the town of Dachau, her bank also came to be known as "Dachauer Bank". She only allowed deposits after all payouts had been processed, which often took until noon, thereby creating long queues of waiting customers that enforced the impression that they should consider themselves lucky to be allowed to give her money. Her doctor prescribed her a stay at the sanatorium in Bad Wildbad where she went at her benefactors' expense. Shortly afterwards, Rosa Ehinger moved into the house next door with her mother. At the height of her success, contemporary sources considered her the wealthiest woman in Bavaria. However, some former customers, despite their losses, helped her; she found a place to stay with the widow of a judge and was given money. Spitzeder's house was closed by the police and soldiers and policemen were placed on the premises to safeguard the remaining items of value and prevent acts of aggression by the populace. During and after her stay in prison, those who had profited from her abandoned her and the newspapers that previously defended her made money by publishing exposés about her. However, as Gallmeyer was erratic and quickly grew bored with her, the relationship soon ended and Spitzeder left Brno for Munich. Spitzeder soon had to borrow money from moneylenders to maintain her lifestyle. She was granted ownership of the Süddeutscher Telegraph, the Neue Freie Volkszeitung and the when their respective publishers were unable to repay their loans. After leaving Tanche's school, she was tutored in foreign languages, composing and piano-playing. That year, he performed as a guest at the National Theater in Munich to critical acclaim. In the halls of the building, cutouts of the negative articles from the Münchner Neueste Nachrichten were posted in an attempt to demonstrate that she had nothing to fear from such coverage.

WECHSEL IN DER GELDPOLITIK: US-Notenbank senkt den Leitzins

. Shortly after arriving, she was surrounded by fans and received publicity in local newspapers. Additionally, she founded her own newspaper, the Münchener Tageblatt. Contemporaneous English-language publications such as referred to it as the "Spitzeder swindle". The money, however, was not sufficient to pay for her lifestyle of residing in hotels and inns with her girlfriend and six dogs. She had six half-siblings from her father's first marriage to Henriette Schüler. Her parents were the actors and singers Josef Spitzeder and Elisabeth "Betty" Spitzeder-Vio. Zinsen und ihre historischen Grundlagen. Christine Spöcker: Das Geldmensch. Das Angebotsoligopol der Banken. However, before she could perform, the Berlin police prevented her performance and forced her to depart the city the same day, so she returned to Munich. The contemporary source Der Neue Pitaval attested that she had the necessary talent but attributed her lack of success to her appearance. She met the director of a theater in Altona who offered her a guest role but she was received negatively. Many lower-class Christians mistrusted the Jewish moneylenders, preferring to bank with a Christian, and she soon had to rent additional rooms in her hotel to accommodate her up to forty employees. Spitzeder moved into the house at No. Spitzeder however refused to act on the stage in Altona again and left the town for Berlin where people waited in anticipation to see the famous fraudster. Whenever she ventured to the hinterland, she treated the masses – who often welcomed her with cheers and gifts – to beer and hearty snacks. Because Ponzi schemes were not yet illegal, she was convicted instead of bad accounting and mishandling customers' money and sentenced to three years in prison. Her personal fortune in art and cash was stripped from her. Spitzeder's first documented relationship was during her time in Brno with fellow actress Josefine Gallmeyer. No longer able to find work in Germany, she left for Vienna but the authorities there forbade any contact between her and the theater's director.Unable to perform under her own name, she began composing music and performing as Adele Vio. Similar reports of large scale withdrawals were reported by the Sparkassen of Traunstein and Mühldorf. Ehinger was sentenced to six months in prison for aiding Spitzeder. The lack of legal requirements for accounting and the fact that she had never advertised any securities were accepted as mitigating circumstances. Running what was possibly the first recorded Ponzi scheme, she offered large returns on investments by continually using the money of new investors to pay back the previous ones. She then returned to Munich for six months to recuperate. According to her autobiography, her success there led to conflicts with the other actors which in turn led her to leave the engagement after six months for health reasons. During banking hours at her house in Schönfeld Street she was often seen sitting on an elevated leather chair in the middle of her banking office wearing a red nightgown and a cross around her neck, demonstratively signing notes for the money she received. Nevertheless, she took one last engagement in Altona. Spitzeder never married, but it was noted that she carried on several lesbian relationships. However, the romantic relationship ended abruptly when after a fight Stier left the premises head over heels; the reason for their fight is unknown to this day. Her family posthumously changed her name to Adele Schmid. Money was deposited in large sacks and in various cupboards.

Ellen White Vorhersagen "Die Städte werden lahmgelegt" Namens-Adventisten

.. Afterwards, she played in Frankfurt, Bern, Zürich, Mainz and Karlsruhe. Der Ferratum Ratenkredit ist zurück: Auszahlung in 24 Stunden. Her pious demeanor also persuaded local Catholic clergy to support her endeavors, bringing her new customers and shielding her from criticism by the government.The publicity Spitzeder generated soon attracted the interest of the local newspapers. Customers who reached her were treated with crass and direct language, with Spitzeder telling them that she did not call them nor would she give them any securities. Her employees, all or almost all without training in accounting, regularly simply took money, with the accounting being restricted to recording the names of depositors and the amounts they paid in, often only signed with "XXX" by her illiterate customers. Despite her demonstrative Christian demeanor at a time when official , she tended to have an entourage composed mostly of young, attractive women. Despite being offered a contract to play there, she knew that she would only be tasked with playing supporting roles due to fierce competition and thus decided to instead work at the theater of Brno. Since there were no vacancies at Coburg, she left the Hofbühne to take an engagement at Mannheim before returning to Munich for a few guest roles at the National Theatre. After Spitzeder's arrest however, Ehinger disavowed her and denied having any romantic relationship with her. In reaction to it, she placed an ad in every major newspaper – except the Münchner Neueste Nachrichten, which refused to print it – challenging her critics to demonstrate that she enticed her customers to give her money or that they were being disadvantaged. She was not convicted of fraud itself because her business scheme did not meet the law's definition of fraud. Some farmers sold their farms to live off the interest alone. Adele Spitzeder: Geschichte meines Lebens. The local Altonaer Generalanzeiger newspaper commissioned the production of small whistles which they sold as "Spitzeder-whistles" for people to use at her next performance.

To circumvent the official ban on lending money, she allowed her workers to take money from the bank and lend it to customers under their own name. Spitzeder performed as a folk singer, living off friends and benefactors, but she never left her criminal life completely behind her, resulting in further trials and periods of incarceration. The long lines of waiting customers were often entertained by musical groups playing outside the bank and she provided free meals and drinks at the tavern "Wilhelm Tell" next door. Despite the size of her business, the bank had no premises of its own and all business was done first out of her hotel rooms and later her house. Despite her mother's urging, she returned to acting at Nuremberg where she was engaged for a year. Her business relied solely on acquiring new customers quickly enough to pay existing customers with the newly acquired money. During and after the trial, she refused to acknowledge any wrongdoing and maintained that her business was completely legal. She was in relationships with multiple women. Since the court's ruling only applied to her money-lending business, she instead stopped lending and focused on taking in money

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